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Full text of "Preliminary report of a Special committee consisting of the chief engineer of the Board of estimate and apportionment, the commissioner of docks, the commissioner of plant and structures"

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CITY OF NEW YORK 

Board of Estimate 
and Apportionment 



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PRELIMINARY REPORT OF A 
SPECIAL COMMITTEE CON- 
SISTING OF THE CHIEF EN- 
GINEER OF THE BOARD OF 
ESTIMATE AND APPORTION- 
MENT, THE COMMISSIONER 
or ©OCKS, THE COMMIS- 
SIONEitJQjr PLANT AND 
STRtJCTtfRE^^ AND THE EN- 
GINEER OF THE BOROUGH 
< ?; OF RICHMOND 



"'?'. .^ ■ Concerning 

THE BROOKLYN-RICHMOND FREIGHT AND 
PASSENGER TUNNEL 





THE OIFT OP 



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CITY OF NEW YORK , 

Board 0/ Estimate 
and Apportionment 



PRELIMINARY REPORT OF A ) ^ 

SPECIAL COMMITTEE CON- 
SISTING OF THE CHIEF EN- 
GINEER OF THE BOARD OF 
ESTIMATE AND APPORTION- 
MENT, THE COMMISSIONER 
O.F DOCKS, THE COMMIS- 
SIONER OF PLANT AND 
STRUCTURES, AND THE EN- 
GINEER OF (THE BOROUGH 
9F RICHMOND 

Concerning 

THE BROOKLYN-RICHMOND FREIGHT AND 
PASSENGER TUNNEL 



OCTOBER FIFTEENTH, NINETEEN TWENTY-ONE 









CITY OF NEW YORK 
Board of Estimate and Apportionment 

October 15, 1921. 
Hon. John F. Hylan^ 

Mayor, ' 
Sir : 

On May 20, 1921, the undersigned were appointed by the Board of 
Estimate and Apportionment as a Committee to confer with representatives 
of the Pennsylvania, Long Island and Baltimore & Ohio Railroads with 
respect to the development of a plan for the joint use of the proposed 
Brooklyn-Richmond freight and passenger tunnel, which under fhe pro- 
visions of Chapter 700 of the Laws of 1921 the Board of Estimate and 
Apportionment has been directed to construct. 

This action was followed on June 17th by an appropriation of $150,000 
for meeting a part of the preliminary expenses incidental to the development 
of plans, and the Chief Engineer of the Board was directed to assume charge 
of the undertaking. 

In order that the Board may be informed as to the present status of 
this enterprise, the Committee begs to present the following as a preliminary 
report : 

It was the understanding of your Committee that the railroad com- 
panies named by the Board in its resolution appointing the Committee were 
selected because tney represented the lines which seemed by reason of loca- 
tion to be most directly related to the tunnel project, but after several in- 
formal discussions with their representatives and a further study of the 
problem, the conclusion was reached that the project concerned every one 
of the trunk line railroads entering the Metropolitan District, and in that 
belief a conference was held by Your Honor, at the suggestion of fnis Com- 
mittee, with the executives of all these railroads with the sole exception 
of one which apparently felt that its interests were too remote to be ma- 
terially affected. 

At this conference, held on July 28th, it was the consensus of opinion 
that before progress could be made the engineering features would have 
to be developed, and to this end a resolution was adopted recommending 
the creation of an engineering committee, consisting of an engineer to be 
named by fhe President of each of the railroads and the Chief Engineer 
of the Board, with directions to report back on August 16th to an executive 
Committee, consisting of Your Honor and the Presidents of the railroads 



represented. A preliminary report of the engineering committee was pre- 
sented at the next meeting, when adjournment was taken to October 25th, 
with the understanding that sufficient information would then be developed 
by the engineering committee to permit of constructive action. 

The report of the Chief Engineer of the Board, accompanied by those 
from his consulting staff and Tunnel Engineer, to the engineering com- 
mittee of the railroads reviews the work which has been done, and is pre- 
sented herewith to show the progress which has been made and the scope 
proposed for the undertaking. 

In first considering the problem it was proposed to link the tunnel 
with the Long Island Railroad on the Brooklyn side of the Narrows and 
with the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad on the Staten Island side, in the belief 
that through the use of existing' trackage it would be possible to connect 
most of the trunk line railroads of the Metropolitan District and to secure 
connections with the remaining roads by the construction of short links, 
and it was also thought that the two tubes under consideration might be 
used for both trunk line freight and passenger traffic as well as for local 
passenger service. At an early stage of the investigation it developed that 
the volume of tonnage which would have to be served was entirely too great 
to permit the use of the same tubes for both trunk line and local passenger 
service or of introducing the former on to the Baltimore & Ohio tracks 
east of the Arlington Yard on Staten Island, and a further study showed 
that present congestion on all other lines which could be availed of for 
the development of a belt line trunk railroad in the territory adjacent to 
Newark Bay was already too pronounced to justify an effort to still further 
crowd them by attempting to use them for the required interchange of 
freight between the roads to be served. To meet this condition the trunk 
line feature of the project has been expanded greatly beyond the scope 
originally contemplated and as planned by the engineers is designed to fully 
meet, in a practical and broad way, all the objections which have been 
raised to other schemes. 

The general features are shown on the accompanying map, on which 
there are also indicated suggested routes for industrial railroads along 
portions of the City waterfront where such facilities are now or soon will 
be needed. 

In the judgment of your Committee, the project as outlined in the 
accompanying report should be pressed to a successful conclusion as being 
advantageous to every interest affected, and as representing the greatest 
stride that has ever been taken toward the proper solution of the Port of 
New York problem. 

In its behalf there may be claimed : 

(1) A maximum benefit to the Port at a lesser cost than under any 
comprehensive project heretofore submitted for public consideration; 



(2) The provision of all-rail delivery from each of the trunk line rail- 
roads direct into each of the Boroughs of the City and to all parts of its 
industrial and commercial waterfront ; 

(3) Provision for the industrial development along modern lines of 
great waterfront areas within the City limits which are now lying dormant 
simply for lack of rail facilities, such as Jamaica Bay, Flushing Bay, the east 
side of The Bronx, and Staten Island, thereby relieving the present over- 
flow, which is obliged to seek such privileges outside the State limits, and 
without interference with present development; 

(4) Decreased cost of delivering freight into all parts of the City due 
to— 

(a) Decrease in mileage for trucking ; , 

(b) Decrease in car detention; 

(c) Decrease in cost of rail service. 

(5) The removal of one of the serious sources of congestion of street 
traffic and particularly along the Hudson River waterfront in lower Man- 
hattan, by relieving all portions of the City from other than its local freight 
business ; 

(6) The provision of a connection between the City and the territory 
west of the Hudson River for the delivery of coal and food supplies, irrespec- 
tive of harbor conditions; 

(7) The encouragement of shipping through the offering of direct all- 
rail connections witH piers provided 'with modem equipment and ware- 
houses on main channels, near to the ocean and removed from the congested 
lines of travel; 

(8) An opportunity for the trunk line railroads to obtain greatly 
expanded facilities and at the same time increase their net revenue at the 
very outset;' 

(9) The means for introducing passenger stations in all boroughs for 
the mutual convenience of the trunk line railroads and their patrons ; 

(10) A most valuable factor in the defense of the City in case of war. 

In the scant time interval which has elapsed since studies were begun, 
it has not seemed practicable to develop the local passenger service feature 
of the project beyond the stage of insuring the line a position suitable to 
meet the needs of the Borough of Richmond, nor would it seem advan- 
tageous to do so until after the trunk line railroads have been given an 
'Opportunity to join the City in carrying out the belt line portion of the plan. 
Steps toward meeting the local passenger service needs will be included in 
the plan before it is completed. 

The Committee recommends that it be authorized, on behalf of the 
City, to make application to the proper Federal authorities for permission to 



make such borings as are required to permit of the preparation of con- 
struction plans, and to secure approval of such type of construction as may 
be determined upon. 

Respectfully submitted, 

ARTHUR S. TUTTLE, 
Chief Engineer, 

Board of Estimate and ^apportionment. 
MURRAY HULBERT, 

Commissioner of Docks. 
GROVER A. WHALEN, 

Commissioner of Plant and Structures. 
THEODOR S. OXHOLM, 

Engineer, Borough of Richmond. 



Oversized 
Foldout 



Board of Estimate and Apportionment 
Office of the Chief Engineer 

Arthur S. Tuttle, 

Chief Engineer. 

October 15, 1921. 

To the Engineering Committee representing the Trunk Line Railroads enter- 
ing the Metro poMtan District, 

Gentlemen : 

At the conference held on August 16 between His Honor, the Mayor, 
and the executives of the trunk Hne railroad companies entering the 
MetropoUtan District, with respect to the development of a plan for the 
joint use of the proposed Brooklyn-Richmond freight and passenger tunnel, 
adjournment was taken to» October 25 with the understanding that in the 
meantime the project would be more fully developed by the Engineering 
Committee. During the lapsed interval the matter of tunnel route and 
grade, has been made the subject?, of intensive study by this office and the 
planning of connections with all of the trunk line railroads has also received 
careful consideration. Valuable data to serve as the basis for the latter 
investigation have been furnished by members of your Committee, and 
have been availed of. 

At the conference held between the members of this Committee on 
August 9 the original suggestions as to the possible inclusion of a portion 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad right-of-way in a proposed inner belt line 
to reach the northern tier of railroads, and of a connection between the 
New York Central and the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroads 
by a line following the east side of the Harlem River were abandoned, the 
former on the ground of present congestion and the latter as impracticable 
for this and other reasons. A substitute route for the connection in New 
Jersey was then proposed, largely dependent upon a partial appropriation 
of the right-of-way of the Central Railroad of New Jersey and the con- 
struction of a short link between this road and the Erie, but later advices 
received from the Chief Engineer of the Jersey Central show that all of the 
existing facilities of this road will be required to meet its own needs. 
Studies have been made by the Chief Engineer of the New York Central 
Railroad of various methods of securing a connection with the proposed 
Belt Line Railroad, but without reaching a definite conclusion, and one is 
now proposed by this office which seems to have peculiar advantages both 
as to location and economy in construction. No constructive suggestions 
have been received with respect to alternative projects for a belt line to 
intercept all of the roads on the New Jersey side, while, on the other hand, 
the information now available seems to establish the impracticability of 
building up such a belt through the use of lines now in existence in the 



highly developed section, all of which appear to be saturated, or nearly 
so, with the present traffic. 

Under these conditions it would seem that an entirely new belt line is 
required, the location of which of necessity must be in territory less inten- 
sively developed with railroads that is that bordering on and at the head of 
Newark Bay. 

The general route which has been selected as most advantageous for 
the belt line now suggested, in order to serve all of the railroads, this 
including the proposed Narrows Tunnel and the territory on the New 
Jersey side, as well as the connection between the New York Central and 
the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroads and a connection with 
the new Stapleton piers, thereby introducing all rail service into every Bor- 
ough of the City, is shown on an accompanying map prepared for the Special 
Committee appointed by the Board of Estimate and Apportionment to con- 
sider the matter, which map also indicates the location of a proposed indus- 
trial railroad traversing the intensively developed Brooklyn waterfront along 
the Upper Bay, East River and Newtown Creek, the inclusion of which in 
the project would seem desirable. 

It might be noted that the proposed route from Haworth, N. J., to the 
Narrows Tunnel follows very closely one that was selected by Consulting 
Engineer Wilgus in 1911, and which through the northerly portion was 
independently located by Tunnel Engineer Snow in 1918. It has been made 
the subject of reconnaissance by the Consulting Engineers and the Tunnel 
Engineer in connection with the development of the present project and an 
aerial survey has been made of the line. 

Routes for other industrial railroads are also shown on this map, 
designed to bring about the development of Jamaica Bay, the great area 
adjoining Arthur Kill on the Richmond side, Flushing Bay and Flushing 
River, the Hunt's Point Section of the Borough of The Bronx, and portions 
of the Harlem waterfront which can easily be reached; the need for still 
additional lines in all of the Boroughs is pronounced but they are not shown 
on the plan for the reason that they are not at this time susceptible of as 
definite routing as in the cases of those now suggested. The timeliness of 
at least many of these latter projects is manifest to those familiar with 
what will be their advantages as soon as jointly operated all rail facilities 
can be provided, as is clearly evidenced in the case of the Arthur Kill 
territory by an inspection of the activity of similar waterfront property on 
the New Jersey side where rail service is rendered by the Jersey Central 
Railroad. The secondary industrial belt lines are featured on the plan as 
indicative of the magnitude which this project should assume in the matter 
of an expansion of industrial and port facilities, and it is believed that their 
construction can to at least a considerate extent be arranged for prior to 
the completion of the main belt. 

A copy of a report upon the tunnel feature of the project prepared by 




Lh^ Jbaircbiid ^\«'*-ml Kjfint&r» xjioxrpav&iiitt. . 



From aerial survey 



ARTHUR KILL AT PRALL'S ISLAND, SHOWING ABSENCE OF DEVELOPMENT ON 
STATEN ISLAND SIDE WHERE RAIL FACILITIES ARE LACKING 

(Anchoi'ed vessels are property of the U. S. Shipping Board — the ruins of a recently burned 
plant on the Nev/ Jersey side are visible in this picture) 



Tunnel Engineer Jesse B. Snow is presented herewith, giving data which 
have been requested in previous discussions. Plans have been developed 
along fifteen separate and distinct routes based in each case on the utiliza- 
tion of either a one per cent, maximum grade or a two per cent, maximum 
grade. The latter gradient has been decided upon in the interest bf economy, 
the construction costs- being thereby decreased more than $15,000,000. 

There is also presented an analysis of the belt line project by Consult- 
ing Engineer William J. Wilgus and concurred in by Consulting Engineer 
John F. Sullivan, including also the suggested industrial line along the 
Brooklyn waterfront, but excluding the connection between the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford and the New York Central Railroads. From this 
review it would seem evident that the financial as well as other advantages 
to be gained by carrying out the project are great enough to serve as a 
strong incentive to its inauguration, and in the belief that a review of what 
has been done in the matter of constructing and operating belt line railroads 
for joint use in other parts of the country would be of value in pointing the 
way for putting into execution the project now under discussion, Consult- 
ing Engineer Wilgus has, at my request, compiled a review of a number of 
similar undertakings which have been made the subject of official reports. 
The traffic statistics on which Consulting Engineer Wilgus' analysis is based 
appear to be more than conservative. They do not include the 12,000,000 or 
more tons to be developed annually from the new piers at Stapleton, all of 
which are under lease, nor do they include a very substantial present move- 
ment across the harbor which is of a more or less intangible character owing 
to lack of statistics and which would doubtless seek this belt line not only 
as a more direct but also as a more economical route, and particularly in the 
case of freight from the northern tier of New Jersey railroads. As an 
illustration of this traffic, there might be cited the great volume of milk and 
produce brought into the City daily which does not appear as " interchange 
freight," and which is now delivered by long Interstate and Interborough 
truck haul and at correspondingly great expense. 

It will be noted that the estimate presented by Tunnel Engineer Snow 
is based on the use of a shield tunnel' leaving Staten. Island near the 
Quarantine Station and designated on the plan as the South Route. This 
tunnel, he estimates, can be constructed at a lesser cost than if the same 
type of tunnel is constructed on what is designated as the North Route. 
Consulting Engineers Wilgus and Sullivan express the opinion that a 
trench tunnel could be built in the northerly location at a cost not more 
than that estimated by Tunnel Engineer Snow for a shield tunnel in the 
southerly location. The special advantages of each of these routes are set 
forth in their reports, but pending progress with studies for a trench con- 
struction project, and the making of necessary borings, it does not seem 
wise at this time to make a final decision as to the choice between these 
routes, but rather to leave the matter open for further investigation. In 
any event, it would seem clear that the project is entirely practicable and 



10 

that the total cost of the proposed tunnel and its terminal connections may 
be estimated at about $51,000,000. 

The connection suggested between the New York Central and the New 
York, New Haven & Hartford Railroads, designed to bring the former 
road into the belt line, has been made the subject of study and report by 
Consulting Engineer Sullivan, of which a copy is annexed hereto. This 
plan seems to be free from the objections heretofore raised and not only 
avoids the congested trackage along the Harlem River but will here afford 
new industrial facilities and connect directly into the west side north and 
south line at an advantageous point. 

Lack of time has prevented field work beyond the reconnaissance stage 
or the preparation of plans in anything like detail, but it is believed that the 
studies as now offered are based on sufficient data to enable those interested 
to reach a sound conclusion as to the advantages of the project. 

A summary of the data developed shows the following: 

iistimated minimum tonnage per year to be carried by the belt 
line railroad as representing present sources of freight inter- 
change and a portion of the service of the Brooklyn water 
front 22,500,000 tons 

Cost of belt line railroad complete from Haworth, N. J., to and 
including the proposed classification yard in the Borough of 
Richmond, say $42,000,000 00 

Cost complete of trunk line freight and passenger tunnel across 
the Narrows, extending from the proposed classification yard 
in the Borough of Richmond to the connection with the 
Long Island Railroad in Bay Ridge, Brooklyn, including cost 
of a connection with the Stapleton Piers and with the pro- 
posed Brooklyn waterfront industrial railroad, say 51,000,000 00 

Cost complete of elevated industrial railroad along the Brooklyn 

waterfront from Bay Ridge to Newtown Creek, say 25,000,000 00 

Cost complete of a link between the New York Central and the 
New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroads, with all con- 
nections, say 23,000,000 OO 

Total cost of project $141,000,000 00 

Estimated cost in 1918 for moving freight on trunk line railroads 
to and from points between the New Haven Yard and 
Haworth, N. J., including fixed and operating charges $19,000,000 00 

Estimated cost of moving the same volume of freight to and 
from points between the same terminals, including fixed and 
operating charges, under the plan now proposed 14,000,000 00 

Average estimated cost, on the basis of 1918 prices, per car 
moved to and from points between the New Haven Yard and 
Haworth, N. J., including fixed and operating charges 10 55 

Average estimated cost, on same basis, per car moved to and 
from points between the New Haven Yard and Haworth, N. 
J., under proposed plan, including fixed and operatng charges 7 11 

Average estimated cost, on the basis of 1918 prices, per ton of 
freight moved to and from points between the New Haven 
Yard and Haworth, N. J., including fixed and operating 
charges • ^^ 

Average estimated cost, on same basis, per ton of freight moved 
to and from points between the New Haven Yard and 
Haworth, N. J., under proposed plan, including fixed and 
operating charges 63 







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11 

These estimates are based on the movement of every character of 
freight, including merchandise, food supplies, coal, building materials, etc., 
and on the use of the belt line railroad for only a fractional part of the total 
freight brought into and through the city It is also evident that the project 
lends itself to a much more extensive use, and that with the increased ton- 
nage to be expected there would be a consequent reduction in the fixed 
charges, with the result of further decreasing the estimated costs under 
the proposed plan. 

While only general reference is made in the analysis to the possible 
use of the proposed Belt Line Railroad for passenger service, its adapability 
to such use for trunk line traffic entering or passing through the Metro- 
politan District is evident. 

To meet the local traffic needs of Staten Island, it is expected that the 
City will at once proceed with the construction of a tunnel to connect into 
the Fourth Avenue Subway, in the Borough of Brooklyn, with a position 
immediately adjoining the proposed Trunk Line Freight and Passenger 
Tunnel. At the Staten Island terminal, connections with the Staten Island 
Rapid Transit Railway and the Staten Island Railway are proposed, thereby 
providing long-deferred rapid transit facilities for the entire Borough. 

If the Trunk Line Railroads can reach a decision in favor of the con- 
struction of a connecting belt at a sufficiently early date to permit of the 
entire project being carried out at one time, an undoubted saving in cost 
could be effected as compared with the conduct of the work as two separate 
enterprises, and in this case it would, of course, be understood that the final 
location and design of the Tunnel would be made the subject of discussion 
between the City and the operators. 

Respectfully submitted, 

ARTHUR S. TUTTLE, 

Chief Engineer, 



Id 

William J. Wilgus 
165 Broadway, New York 

October 13, 1921. 
Mr. Arthur S. Tuttle, 

Chief Engineer, Board of Estimate and Apportionment, 
Municipal Building, New York, N. Y. 

Dear Mr. Tuttle : 

In accordance with your request I am placing before you, in the 
accompanying initial study, my views on the subject of an outer or Metro- 
politan belt^ine railway, of which the proposed Brooklyn-Richmond 
municipal tunnel would form a link for the purpose of bringing all the 
trunk lines that serve the port in intimate contact with every borough of this 
city. 

From this preliminary study it is apparent that a project of this kind 
may be made self-supporting and, at the same time, bring to the nation, the 
local communities and the carriers, great advantages, from the lack of which 
the port is now suffering. 

As evidence of what has been done elsewhere to increase efficiency 
and foster the growth of trade and industry through the creation of belt 
railways, there is annexed at the end of the accompanying study, extracts 
from reports bearing on this question for Chicago, Philadelphia, Baltimore, 
St. Louis, New Orleans, San Francisco and Montreal. All of these reports 
unite in forcefully endorsing the belt line feature. 

In conclusion I venture to express the earnest hope that in their 
consideration of this project the City and the railroads will find ways of 
overcoming the many obstacles to be expected in a project of such magni- 
tude, and reach an agreement under which the tunnel may be built in a 
manner that will best serve this great port and the country at large. 

Very truly yours, 

William J. Wilgus, 

Consulting Engineer, 

INITIAL STUDY FOR A METROPOLITAN BELT LINE IN 
CONNECTION WITH THE PROPOSED BROOKLYN- 
RICHMOND TUNNEL 



The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not the creation 
of an outer belt line for the Metropolitan District is worthy of serious 
consideration, in connection with the planning of the municipal Brooklyn- 
Richmond tunnel under the provisions of Chapter 700 of the Laws of 1921 
of the State of New York. 



IS 

It is not claimed that the figures herein given are above criticism. They 
are founded on the inadequate data furnished by the Port Authority, on the 
records of individual tfunk lines at this port, on United States geological 
contour maps, and in part on assumptions drawn from experiences else- 
where. However, they are believed to be sufficiently close to warrant the 
conclusion that the tunnel should be located with reference to a project 
of this kind, in order that it may serve the purposes mentioned in the Act. 

Origin and Volume of Freight Traffic 

These are shown in detail on Exhibits A and B and are based on 
information given by the Port Authority. 

It appears that in 1914 the tonnages handled between the New Jersey 
railroads and Long Island were as follows : 

Tons 
Lightered to and from the Long Island waterfront ., 8,493,000 

Floated to and from the Long Island waterfront: 

Tons 

To the Long Island Railroad 9,140,000 

Other destinations 3,207,000 

12,347,000 

Total 20,840,000 

To these tonnages should be added the interchanges in New Jersey, 
aggregating 5,844,000 tons when counted for all of the lines or one-half 
that, or 2,922,000 tons, when applied to one means of inter-connection. 

Assuming that the average annual rate of increase of this traffic is 
approximately 2% and that the new facilities will be ready for use in 1926, 
the total increase for the twelve years would be about 25%. It may also 
be assumed that only one-half of the lightered freight would be handled 
by rail. On these bases the anticipated rail tonnages for 1926 have been 
taken as follows: 

Tons 
Between New Jersey and Long Island : 

To and from Long Island Railroad 11,000,000 

To and from Brooklyn and Queens waterfront 9,000,000 

Total 20,000,000 

Interchanges in New Jersey (no increase assumed) 2,500,000 

Grand Total 22,500,000 

Nothing is here included for the recently completed Stapleton piers. 



14 

Proposed Location 

The proposed location and profile of the entire project is illustrated 
on Exhibit H. From this it will be seen that it is proposed to encircle 
the Metropolitan District west of the Hudson River, from the West Shore 
Railroad at Haworth on the north, via Paterson, the Passaic River, Short 
Hills-Summit, Scotch Plains and Metuchen to Perth Amboy on the south. 

Crossing Arthur Kill on a high level viaduct with a clearance sufficient 
for masted vessels, the line bisects Staten Island from south to north for its 
entire length and connects with the proposed tunnel at Clove Street. From 
this point the line descends on a 1% and 2% grade to the pierhead line at 
Arrietta Street, Tompkinsville, connecting en route with the existing Staten 
Island Rapid Transit Railway for access to the Stapleton piers and for 
passenger purposes; thence it passes beneath Upper Bay to Bay Ridge, 
Brooklyn; and thence rises on a 2% grade to connections (a) with the 
Long Island Railroad, over which access would be had to the Jamaica Bay 
development, to points in Brooklyn, Queens and elsewhere in Long Island 
and to The Bronx and New England, and (b) with the proposed Brooklyn 
Waterfront Railroad on either First or Second Avenue. 

In this manner all railroads in New Jersey are brought directly in 
contact with each other outside of the existing congested and high-priced 
areas; likewise they are brought in direct rail contact with the railroads 
that serve Long Island and New England and with the Brooklyn 
waterfront. Moreover, opportunities are offered for future industrial 
developments in the sparsely settled areas touched by the new line in New 
Jersey and along the east bank of Arthur Kill on Staten Island, and for 
serving the new City piers at Stapleton and the projected great port de- 
velopment at Jamaica Bay. 

It is proposed to bring the trains of connecting lines into a new yard 
in Richmond, and with this in mind gradients on the proposed belt have 
been made so light that this course may be followed without the need for 
breaking up trains at the junction points or using pushers. 

It has been said that the placing of a belt line outside of the existing 
" break-up " yards will necessitate new yards at the junctions , but this 
would not appear to be the case if suitable classifications are made at 
divisional yards to the west where solid trains for Long Island would be 
dispatched on the same principle now employed on the Lehigh Valley Rail- 
road in connection with a splitting of traffic at South Plainfield, the New 
York Central at Spuyten Duyvil, and the Erie Railroad at North Paterson. 

East of the Richmond yard the use of electric traction makes possible 
much steeper gradients, as for instance 2%, as is shown in the following 
examples of similar operation : 



15 
Ruling Gradient Train Loads No. and Wt. of Locos. 



C M. & St. P. Ry 2.0% 2,800 tons 2—282 tons 

N. & W. R. R 2.0% 3,250 tons 2—284 tons 

Grand Trunk Ry 2.0% 1,000 tons 2— 66 tons 

Gt. Northern Ry. 2.2% 1,500 tons 3—115 tons 

M. C. R. R 1.5%&2.0% 1,800 tons 2—100 tons 



In fact the train load may be made as great as may be found to be prac- 
ticable from an operating standpoint, provided the adopted electric locomo- 
tives are sufficiently powerful. 

It is provided that crossings of both highways and railroads shall be 
either over or under, thus avoiding all grade crossings^ and that the double 
track main line in every way shall be built according to the most approved 
practice. 

The location shown on Staten Island and under the Upper Bay at the 
entrance to the Narrows, has been tentatively selected for the following 
reasons : 

1. It effectively serves the entire length of the island rather 
than a small section. 

2. It lends itself to a yard location that has the outstanding 
advantages of (a) economy of construction by reason of compara- 
tively light grading and good foundations, (b) economy of opera- 
tion because of a long level stretch beyond the yard in both direc- 
tions, a moderate 0.5% gradient against steam traction westbound 
loads from the yard to the crossing of Arthur Kill, and short switch- 
ing runs to and from Stapleton piers and objectives in Brooklyn, 
(c) accessorial overhead viaduct for vehicles and pedestrians, (d) 
harmonizing with the future character of the proposed industrial 
development on the neighboring westerly side of the island and (e) 
protection from sea attack in case of war. 

3. It is out of sight in tunnel or in walled depression through 
the residential part of the island north of the yard and therefore 
unobjectionable. 

4. It is ideal for the employment of the trench method of sub- 
aqueous tunnel construction because of remoteness from ship move- 
ments at Quarantine, comparatively moderate currents and depths 
of water, non-interference with navigation to a marked degree, and 
accessibility in connection with the securing and delivering of the 
raw materials of construction. This method has the advantages 
of (a) economy of construction through use of machinery and cheap 
raw materials, (b) economy of operation through lessened depth 
of track for the predominant eastbound loaded train movement, and 
through use of a sanitary permanent type of concrete track con- 



16 

struction, (c) safety of construction methods as bearing on life and 
health of workmen, and (d) saving of time of construction with 
consequent reduction of interest charges and hastening of comple- 
tion of the project. 

5. It admirably lends itself to future rail connections with the 
New Jersey waterfront at Constable Hook and with the projected 
island in the Upper Bay. 

6. It serves, for passenger purposes, the portion of the island 
that is now most densely settled and, through trackage or other 
proper agreement with the Staten Island Rapid Transit Railway, or 
otherwise, may be made to serve the more sparsely settled sections 
of the island as well as the industrial region along Arthur Kill. 

7. It offers little likelihood of opposition from property owners 
in Brooklyn. 

8. It minimizes the possibility of interference with future ad- 
ditional water-main crossings of the Narrows. 

9. It obviates the necessity of negotiating with companies hold- 
ing existing franchises for rights in connection with the main freight 
project. 

The section selected for the subaqueous tunnel is similar to that of the 
Detroit River tunnel of the Michigan Central and Canada Southern rail- 
roads, with an overhead clearance of 18 feet at the crown, and the land- 
tunnel section is designed in harmony therewith. 

Financial Feasibility 

As indicated on Exhibit C, the cost in 1918 of handling the assumed 
volume of traffic between the New Jersey railroads and between them and 
Long Island points was $9.50 per car, or $19,000,000. 

By the proposed new line, as shown on Exhibit D the cost of handling 
the same traffic, under conditions that existed during the same period, is 
estimated at $3.75 per car, or $6,750,000. 

The difference represents the annual savings in operation that would 
result from the adoption of the new all rail, route, viz., $12,250,000. 

From this is to be deducted fixed charges on the estimated cost of the 
project, all as shown in detail on Exhibit E, viz., $7,250,000. 

Therefore, the net annual saving, after having provided for increased 
fixed charges is $5,000,000. 

It may be said that against this sum should be offset the fixed charges 
on the existing facilities east of the west ends of the break-up yards, which 
will no longer be used for the traffic diverted to the new route, but to this 
may be replied that such facilities are required and will be utilized for 



17 

the growth of business that will continue to obtain at and near fne water- 
front thus relieved of a cross-water movement. In any event the project 
is shown to be a self-supporting one, coupled with which are the compelling 
advantages hereinafter set forth. 

Impracticability of Inner Belt 

The impracticability of the inner belt for heavy traffic of the kind 
herein shown is demonstrated by the required frequency of train move- 
ment, fifteen minutes apart under maximum conditions, as shown on Exhibit 
D. This would not be permissible through territory which is not only now 
congested but will become more so when contemplated developments are 
completed, as for instance the new Newark port, the Hackensack River 
lumber terminal, Cunard Line piers, Claremont terminal, et cetera. 

Then too, the existing drawbridges would be fatal to a traffic of such 
density. 

Additional Advantages of Proposed Belt Line 

There are other outstanding advantages that would follow the creation 
of the proposed belt line, other than the estimated saving in cost of service, 
vi^. : 

1. Military protection in time of war, of which there is a 
startling instance in the case of the outer belt line at Paris during the 
World War (see Railway Age Gazette, Dec. 8, 1916, page 1053). 
The existence of such a coordinating feature may some day save 
our national existence. 

2. Improvement of service, through elimination of gross delays 
and wasteful expenses to which manufacturers and merchants are 
now subjected, thereby strengthening the position of this community 
and the railroads that serve it, in competition with other ports and 
with rival routes, as for instance the projected Great Lakes- 
St. Lawrence project. 

3. Development of dormant areas on the outskirts of the 
Metropolitan District, to the manifest advantage of the communities 
affected and the carriers, including New Jersey, Staten Island, 
Jamaica Bay, Flushing Bay, Hunts Point, Harlem River and else- 
where. 

4. Improved inter-relations of constituent communities, as for 
instance Paterson and Brooklyn, etc. ; also improved access between 
all of the inland communities and future water developments on 
Staten Island and at Jamaica Bay, Flushing Bay, etc. ^ 

5. Unifying of terminal service of the ten trunk lines that 
serve the port in such manner as to give them and the public the 



18 

inestimable advantages above set forth, accompanied by the further 
advantages of combined credit and use of equipment and equal oppor- 
tunities for all in sharing in the expansion of the greatest city in the 
world. This may be effected through a public agency like the City of 
New York, as has been done at New Orleans, San Francisco and 
Montreal, or through a joint agency as in the cases of the Belt Railway 
of Chicago and the Terminal Railway Association of St. Louis. The 
latter appeals to the writer as being the most practicable in this 
instance. Brief descriptions of the principal belt railw^ays in this 
country and Canada are given in Exhibit I. 

6. Freedom from harbor interruptions caused by fogs, storms, 
high tides, ice and marine strikes. 

7. Work for ttnemployed labor and capital on a necessary 
project. 

8. T rafts formation of New York from an island to a mainland 
city. 

Passenger Facilities 

On Exhibits F, G and H are indicated possibilities in the way of 
passenger routes which will bring all the New Jersey railroads in connection 
with the Fourth Avenue rapid transit subway in Brooklyn. Means are 
also indicated for connecting both shores of Staten Island with the other 
boroughs of the City and with the trunk lines. Provision for a separate 
two-track tunnel for local passenger service is not included in this study. 

Summary 

This initial study indicates not only the wisdom of locating the pro- 
posed municipal passenger and freight tunnel in such manner as to serve 
the far-reaching purpose here outlined, but it also points to the wisdom on 
the part of the railroads of cooperating whole-heartedly with the City to 
make a success of a project that means so much for the nation, for the 
local communities, and for the carriers. 

William J. Wilgus, 

Considting Engineer. 
October 11, 1921. 
Concurred in by: 

John F. Sullivan, 

Consulting Engineer. 



19 



£:XW3/TA 



o 




{B.R.R. S2.PO0 
'PRR. 21,000 
( 



PROPOSED 

METROPOUTAN BELT RY, 
Interchange Tonnages 

(Records of i9l4> 



20 



EXWB/T B 




21 



EXHIBIT " C." 

OPERATING COSTS 

Existing Methods 
(Rough Estimates) 
Road Haul, Proposed Belt Line Crossings to Break-up Yards: 



Interchange 

Distance , ^ >^ 

Railroad Miles Tons Ton Miles 

W. S. R. R 13.5 1,229,000 16,591,500 

E. R. R 16.0 .1,048,000 16,768,000 

D. L. & W, 17.0 73,000 1,241,000 

C. R. R. N. J 21.0 1,353,000 28,413,000 

P. R. R 15.0 1,546,000 23,190,000 

L. V. R. R 17.0 595,000 10,115,000 

Total 16. 5± 5,844,000 96,318,500 

Say 5,500,000 90,750,000 

Estimated Cost at $.0036 T. M.*.. $326,700. 



Long Island 



Total 



Tons 



Ton Miles 



Tons Ton Miles 



1,510,000 20,385,000 

1,601,000 25,616,000 

1,262,000 21,454,000 

4,339,000 91,119,000 

10,015,000 150,225,000 

2,113,000 35,921,000 



2,739,000 36,976.500 

2,649,000 42,384.000 

1,335,000 22,695,000 

5,692,000 119,532.000 

11,561,000 173,415,000 

2,708,000 46.036,000 



20,840,000 344,720,000 26,684,000 441,038,500 

20,000,000 330,000,000 25,500,000 420,750.000 

$1,188,000. $1,514,700. 

Say $1,500,000. 



All Costs 



Costs 



Operation 



Fixed Charges 



Total 



Location 



Number ^ 
of Cars Per Car Amount' Per Car Amount' Per Car Amount' 



1 . Road Haul — Proposed Belt Line 

N. J. Int 400,000 

L. 1 1,600,000 



Crossings to Break-up Yards 2,000,000 

2. Break-up Yards 2,000,000 

3. Road Haul — Break-up Yards 

to Waterfront Yards 2,000,000 

4. Waterfront Yards 1,600,000 

5. Lightering (5,000,000 tons) 

6. Floating 1,200,000 



$0.75 
0.89 

0.66 
1.60 

2.07 



$1,500,000. 
1,780,000. 

1,320,000. 
2,560,000. 
3,750,000. 
2,484,000. 



$0.22 $440,000. 



0.31 
0.98 



0.32 



620,000. 
1,568,000. 
1,250,000. 

384,000. 



$0.75 
1.11 

0.97 
2.58 

2.39 



$1,500,000. 
2,220.000. 

1,940,000. 
4,128,000. 
5,000,000. 
2,868,000. 



$8.83 $17,656,000. 
$.75 .1,200.000. 

103,000. 



2,000,000 $6.70 $13,394,000. $2.13 $4,262,000. 

Excess car per diem on 1,600,000 cars (M day per car) 

Car Maintenance (running repairs only between break-up yards and waterfront, 
comparable with similar item included in study for "Belt" railway) 

Total $18,959,000. 

Average Cost per Car (2,000,000 cars via present routes) Say $9.50 

Average Cost per Car (1,800,000 cars via proposed Belt Line) .Say $10.55 
*Same as for proposed "Belt," viz., M.E. $736,000. 

C.T. 1,107,000. 

$1,843,000.^ 518,200,000 T. M.=$.0036 per T. M. 



EXHIBIT "D/' 

OPERATING COSTS 

PiROPOSED .Metropolitan Belt Line 

(Rough Estimates) 



No. Cars Per Car Amount 



Steam Section— West Shore R. R. to Richmond 

Yard 1,800,000 $2.50 $4,500,000 

Eectric Section— Richmond Yard to Bay Ridge 1,620,000 0.65 1,050,000 

Electric Section— Bay Ridge to Brooklyn Waterfront 726,000 1.57 1,140,000 

1,800,000 $3.72± $6,690,000 

Say $3.75 $6,750,000 

Average Haul — 

Ton Average 

Tons Miles haul, Miles 

W. S. R. R.— Richmond Yard 22,500,000 518,200,000 23 

Richmond Yard— Bay Ridge 20,000,000 160,000,000 8 

Brooklyn Waterfront 9,000,000 45,000,000 5 

22,500,000 723,200,000 32 



t= 



22 









OPERATING 


COSTS • 
















Steam Section 














(Rough Estimates) 












West Shore R. R.— Richmond 


Yard 








Between 


Character 


Dist. 

Miles 




Units 


Mileages 






Tons Frt. 


Cars* 


'' Frt. 
Trainst Ton Miles 


Car 
Miles 


Train 
Miles 


w. s, 


. & E. R. R. 


Interchange 
Long Island 


10 
10 


1,200,000 
1,500,000 


97,000 
121,000 


2,160 12,000,000 
2,690 15,000,000 


970,000 
1,210,000 


21.600 
26,900 






Total 


10 


2,700,000 


218,000 


4,850 27,000,000 


2,180,000 


48,500 


E. R. 


R. & D. L. & W. 


Interchange 
Long Island 


19 
19 


2,200,000 
3,100,000 


177,000 
250,000 


3,940 41,800,000 
5,550 58,900,000 


3,363,000 
4,750,000 


74,860 
105,450 






Total 


19 


5,300,000 


427,000 


9,490 100,700,000 


8,113,000 


180,310 


D. L. 


rCRR 
&W. & <PRR 

Uv 

& Richmond 


Interchange 
Long Island 

Total 

Long Island 


17 

17 

17 
14 


2,200,000 
4,300,000 

6,500,000 

20,000,000 


177,000 
347,000 

524,000 

1,620,000 


3,940 37,400,000 
7,710 73.100,000 

11,650 110,500,000 

36,000 280,000,000 


3,009^000 
5,899,000 

8,908,000 


66,980 
131,070 

198,050 


PRR 


22,680,000 


504,000 



Grand Total— Interchange 60 91,200,000 7,342,000 163,440 

Long Island 60 427,000,000 34,539,000 767,420 



Total 


60 


518,200,000 41,881,000 930.860 


Annual Operating Expenses 


1 • — 

Description 


Quantity Unit 


Price Amount 



M. of W.— 

Main track 145 Miles $6,000.00 $870,000.00 

Sidings 70 Miles 4,000.00 280,000.00 

$1,150,000.00 



M. of E.— 

Locomotives 930,000 Loco. Miles .34 $316,000.00 

Cars (running repairs only) 42,000,000 Car Miles .01 420,000,00 

$736,000.00 



Transportation — 

Locomotive wages 930,000 Train Miles . 18 

Train wages 930,000 Train Miles . 24 

Other locomotive and train expenses 930,000 Train Miles .12 

Coal 930,000 Train Miles . 50 

Locomotive rent 930,000 Train Miles . 15 

Total road haul 930,000 Train Miles $1.19 $1,107,000.00 

Yard switching 1,600,000 Cars 0.70 1,120,000.00 

Mlscelllneous 200.00 0.00 

$2,427,000.00 

General Expenses $200,000.00 

Total $4,513,000 . 00 

Per train mile H'^^^ 

Per car mile "/,• J.1 

Per ton mile 0.009 

Per car (1,800,000) 2.50 



* Average loading = 21 tons per loaded car; 12.4 tons all cars, 
t Average train == 45 cars. 



23 



OPERATING COSTS 

Electric Section 

Richmond Yard — Bay Ridge 

(Rough Estimates) 



East-bound 
(All Loads) 



West-bound 
(Loads and 
Empties) 



Total 



Gradients :** 

Level 0.0 — 4.5 miles 

Descendmg : 1.0 — 2. 5 miles 

Ascendmg 2.0— 1 .0 miles 



Tonnages :* 

Freight (contents) 
Cars (tare) 



Locomotives (200T. ea.) 



Total 

No. Cars (av. 21 tons per loaded car*) . 
No. Trains :t 

Annually 

Daily — Max. (av. = .75 max.) 

Hourly — Max. (av. = .70 max.) . . . 

Time apart — minimum 

Train Loads — Tons : 

Freight (21T. per car) 

Cars (19T. per car) 

Trailing load 

Locomotives (2) 

Total 

Ton-miles : 

Freight (contents) 

Cars (tare) 



8.0 miles 

17,000,000 
15,400,000 

32,400,000 
3,600,000 

36,000,000 
810,000 

18,000 

66 

4 

15 minutes 

945 
855 

1,800** 
200 

2,000 

136,000,000 
123,200,000 



0.0 — 4. 5 miles 
2.0 — 1.0 miles 
1.0 — 2.5 miles 

8.0 miles 

3,000,000 
15,400,000 



20,000,000 
30,800,000 



18,400,000 
3,600,000 

22,000,000 
810,000 

18,000 

66 

4 

15 minutes 

168 
855 

1,023 
200 

1,223 



50,800,000 
7,200,000 

58,000,000 
1,620,000 



36,000 



24,000,000 160,000,000 
123,200,000 246,400,000 



Trailing load 
Locomotives 



259,200,000 
28,800,000 



147,200,000 
28,800,000 



406,400,000 
57,600,000 



Total 

Resistance — Lbs. : 

Level (10 lbs. per ton) 1,620,000,000 

Ascending (30 lbs. per ton) 

Ascending (50 lbs. per ton) 1,800,000,000 



288,000,000 176,000,000 464,000,000 



990,000,000 
1,650,000,000 



Total 3,420,000,000 2,640,000,000 

K. W. H. (53.9 W. H. per T.M. ; includes lighting, pumping, etc.) 

Car Miles 6,500,000 6,500,000 

Locomotive Miles 300,000 300,000 

Train Miles 150,000 150,000 



2,610,000,000 
1,650,000,000 
1,800,000,000 

6,060,000,000 

25,000,000 

13,000,000 

600,000 

300,000 



* Total tonnage is taken from the records of the late Port and Harbor Commission. 
Average weights of contents per loaded car (21 tons) and of empty car (19 tons) ; 
also the ratio of E. B. to total tonnage (85%) is taken from the records of one of the 
trunk lines terminating at New York. 

t Average = 45 cars per train. ' 

** Examples elsewhere are : — 

Tons Cars Max. Gradient Wt. Loco. 

C M. St. P. Ry 2,800 60 iTo 2—284 

N. & W. R. R 3,250 80 2.0 2—284 

G. N. Ry ...; 1,500 .. 2.2 3—115 

M. C R. R 1,800 45 2.0 2—100 

G. T. Ry 1,000 26 2.0 2—66 



24 



Annual Operating Expenses 



Description 


Quantity Unit 


Price 


Amount 


M. of W — 

Sidings 

Main Track v 


12 miles 

18 miles 


S4,000.00 
'6,000.00 


$48,000 
108,000 

$156,000 


M. of E.— 

Cars (running repairs only) 

Locomotives 


. . 13,000,000 Car miles . 
600,000 Loco, miles.. 


401 
.10 


$130,000 
60,000 

$190,000 



Transportation — 

Loco, wages 600,000 Loco, miles. . . 18 $108,000 

Train wages 300,000 Train miles. . .24 72,000 

Electricity 25,000,000 K. W. H. . . . .OVA 375,000 

Other Loco, and Train expenses,. 300,000 Train miles.. .12 36,000 

Sub-stations 30,000 

Miscellaneous 30,000 

$651,000 

General Expenses $50,000 

Total $1,047,000 

Per Train mile $3.49 

Per Car mile .08 

Per Ton mile (freight) .0065 

Per Car .65 



OPERATING COSTS 

Eleci'Ric Section 

Bay Ridge — Brooklyn Water Front 

(Rough Estimates) 



1926 



Belt Line 
1914 1914+25% Traffic 

Tons— Car floats 3,200,000 4,000,000 4,000,000 

Lighters 8,500,000 10,600.000 5,000,000 

11,700,000 14,600,000 9,000,000 9,000,000 

Cars (assumed average load 12.4 tons) 726,000 

Trains (assumed average load, 45 cars) 16,100 

Freight ton miles (assumed average haul, 5 miles) 45,000,000 

Car miles 3,600,000 

Train miles 80,000 



2h 



Annual Operating Expenses 



1 - - — — 

Description 


Quantity Unit 


Price 


Amount 


M of W.— 

Main track 

Sidings 


28 Miles 

50 iMiles 


$6,000.00 
4,000.00 


$168,000 
200,000 








$368,000 


M. of E.— 

Road locos. ... * 


80,000 Loco, miles.. 
3,600,000 Car miles.. 


.10 
.01 


$8,000 


Cars 


36,000 


^^ 






$44,000 


Transportation— 

Varintis items 


80,000 Train miles.. 
726,000 Cars 


1.20 

.80 


$96,000 


Switching, incl. switching loco. 
repairs 


581,000 








$677,000 


rr^tipral exDenses 






$50,000 


Total 






$1,139,000 


Per car 




— 


$1.57 


«- • z — 









26 

EXHIBIT " E." 

ROUGHLY ESTIMATED COSTS OF CONSTRUCTION 
(Exclusive of connections to Stapleton Piers and Jamaica Bay) 



West Shore R. R. (Haworth) to Richmond Yard (double-track main line): 

Right of Way— 60 miles at $83,333 $5,000,000 

Grading— 8,100,000 c. y. at 60c 4,860,000 

Tunnel (including lining), 1.3 miles at $2,000,000 2,600,000 

Masonry— 120,000 c. y. at $11 1,320,000 

Steel— 112,500 tons at $90 10,125,000 

Track and Accessories, including signals, etc 4,720,000 

Buildings, water and fuel stations, etc 750,000 

Equipment, exclusive of through road power assumed to 
be furnished by connecting lines and allowance made 

therefor in operating costs ^ 2,870,000 

Overhead percentages, including engineering, general ex- 
penditures, contingencies and interest during construc- 
tion, 30%, say 9,755,000 $42,000,000 

Richmond Yard to Bay Ridge, Brooklyn (two-track tunnel) : 

(Based on figures taken from estimate of Jesse B. Snow, 

Tunnel Engineer, excluding Stapleton connection but including 

electric locomotives) 51,000,000 

Brooklyn Waterfront Railway (double-track main line) : 

(Rough estimate by John F. Sullivan, Consulting Engineer) 25,000,000 

Total estirnated cost , $118,000,000 

Annual fixed charges at same interest rate adopted by Port and Harbor 
Commission, 5%, plus 2% for taxes on investment exterior to New 
York, plus 1% for amortization of investment in N. Y., an average of 
say 6% (this rate used for comparative purposes only), say.... 7,250,000 

Average per car (1,800,000), say 4.00 

Note— These figures are believed to be ultra-conservative. With careful planning 

based on field surveys, better knowledge of sub-surface and other local conditions 

and a falling market the actual cost should be far less. 



27 



£XH/B/T F 




28 



EXN/BJT & 




Oversized 
Foldout 



29 

EXHIBIT " I "—BELT RAILWAYS 

Extracts from Report of the Terminal Commission on Terminal 
Facilities of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, April 1, 1916, except 
where otherwise noted. 

General 

* * * It was found by the Commission that at all of the larger cities 
of the United States belt lines are either in operation or are contemplated, 
and that the ablest traffic men in this and other countries agree that belt 
lines are great aids to the commercial, industrial and railroad development 
of a city. * * * 

Chicago 

In Chicago, which is the greatest railroad center in the world, the Com- 
mission found five belt lines in operation. City and railroad officials and 
traffic experts told the members of the Commission that without these 
belt Hnes the railroads of Chicago could not efficiently handle the tremendous 
volume of business which converges at that point. One of these belt roads, 
the Belt Railway of Chicago, serves as the principal medium of interchange 
of carloa.d freight at that city. This road operates a monster clearing yard 
that has a capacity of 10,000 cars a day. The charges of this road amount to 
$6 a car when freight originates with the belt company, and about $4.50 a 
car where the belt company acts as intermediary. The railroads enjoying the 
road haul absorb these charges. 

Without going into the functions of all the belt roads at Chicago, it 
might be well to mention that another of these roads, the Chicago Junction 
Railway, operates universal freight stations, where freight for any of the 
railroads serving Chicago may be left. This company will sort freight left 
at its stations and deliver it to the railroads that are to haul it. The charge 
for this service is $1 per ton. The railroads absorb the charge and the 
shipper gets the flat Chicago rate. This sort of thing is unknown in Boston. 
In Chicago, where the shipper has a siding, the belt company takes his less 
than carload shipments direct from the siding and forwards them for the 
flat Chicago rate. If the shipper has not a siding, he teams his freight to 
the nearest universal receiving station and his shipments are unloaded there. 
But one door need be visited. He gets the flat Chicago rate, plus, of course, 
the teaming cost to and from the universal station. * * * 

Philadelphia 

In Philadelphia, where with a contemplated expenditure of approxi- 
mately $25,000,000, the city and railroad officials are jointly engaged in 
extensive port improvements, the backbone of the development is, according 
to city officials and officials of business organizations, the Philadelphia Belt : 
Line Railroad. 



30 

The Philadelphia Belt Line Railroad, which is a semi-public property, 
was incorporated in 1891 by a group of public spirited citizens, who were 
alarmed at the danger of railroad monopoly of the waterfront. A majority 
of the stock of this road was placed in trust for the city. This stock is 
voted by trustees, the majority of whom are elected by the principal busi- 
ness organizations of Philadelphia. The road does not do an operating 
business. It has a charter which permits it to lay its tracks to any portion 
of the important waterfront of Philadelphia, and it has tracks which extend 
along about seven miles of this frontage. Through the belt road and its 
charter, any road in Philadelphia is enabled to gain entrance on an equal 
basis with other railroads to any portion of the Philadelphia waterfront. 
The railroads themselves have paid for the greater part of this trackage. 
They operate the same and pro-rate the expense, charging each other for 
interchange from $2 to $4 a car for a two-way movement. 

In connection with the recent agreement between the roads and the city, 
whereby the terminal improvements which are to cost approximately $25,- 
000,000 are to be made, the Belt Line principle was endorsed. The agree- 
ment included provision for the extensions of the tracks along the water- 
front of two of the railroads and a' so for the extension of the belt line 
tracks and the application of the belt line principle to the track extensions 
of the two railroads in question. It is asserted by the city officials of Phil- 
adelphia that prior to the establishment of the belt, the railroads virtually 
divided the city against itself and that the interchange of a freight car was 
a rarity. They say that the Belt Line has made the railroads more tolerant 
of each other and easier to deal with. The business organizations of the 
city of Philadelphia advertise the belt railroad as one of the city's greatest 
advantages, and state that there is nothing like it on the northern seaboard. 



" All of the large piers in the harbor are connected with the tracks of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company, the Philadelphia and Reading Railway 
Company and the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company through the Phil- 
adelphia Belt Line Railroad Company, a semi-public corporation. This 
trackage convenience permits of direct delivery of goods brought from 
manufacturing plants to the vessels, the Belt Line tracks running into all 
of the modern piers. The use of the Belt Line, with its direct track con- 
nections from pier to vessels, eliminates the costly work of lightering." 
(Extract from ** Port of Philadelphia," November, 1919.) 

Baltimore 

The city of Baltimore is expending $2,000,000 on marginal streets and a 
belt railroad which is intended to connect all of the railroads in the city. 
While this road is now operated for only about 1% niiles and at present 
connects with but one of the three principal railroads, the officials of that 



> 



1- 



IS' 



m 



31 

city told the members of the Terminal Commission that the belt and the 
highway have already done much to develop a section of the city which 
had remained industrially stagnant for fifty years. The principal marginal 
street in Baltimore is known as the Key Highway. 

" The city is now constructing in the beds of these several streets the 
Municipal Harbor Railroad, a railroad owned and to be operated by the 
municipality. The road will connect the three trunk lines which serve the 
city. * * * Through the building and operating of this Municipal Har- 
bor Railroad by the city, manufacturing and industrial concerns of Balti- 
more will enjoy the advantage of the flat Baltimore rate and the elimination 
of high switching charges." (Extract from " Port of Baltimore, 1918.") 

St. Louis 

Two belt railroads were found by the Commission in St. Louis. Both 
are operated by the Terminal Railroad Association of that city. This is 
a regularly incorporated company which does a passenger and freight 
terminal business, and its stock is held b}^ the fifteen companies which it 
serves. The association has been in existence upwards of twoscore of 
years. It does not pay any dividends; its profits are put into equipment 
when receipts exceed expenses, and any deficit if not made up by future 
business is pro-rated among the owner companies. The officials of this 
road told the Commission that between 75 per cent, and 80 per cent., of 
the freight business of St. Louis is handled by this association and that 
the tracks of the association belt line extend 25 miles beyond the station. 
This association does an interchange business between all the railroads and 
maintains warehouses for the receipt and delivery of less than carload lots, 
and terminals for the receipt and delivery of carload lots. It also does an 
interchange business between various industries located along these tracks 
and those of the railroads. It handled on an average 10,120 freight cars 
a day in 1914, and a total of 3,693,996 cars for the year. 

It was stated by the officials of this association that one of its belt 
lines was built in 1903 and that at the close of the World's Fair in 1904 
there was not a single industry on it. The belt line now has between 35 
and 40 industries located on it, and does a business of three hundred cars 
a day between these industries. It was built on swamp land worth about 
$100 an acre ; parts of it are now worth $5,000 an acre, according to the 
officials of this association. These officials say that the industries have 
increased the valuation of the city, given employment to many people, and 
stimulated the growth of the city's business. 

New Orleans 

In New Orleans, where $25,000,000 is being expended in the develop- 
ment of the waterfront facilities, the city officials, and officers of the local 



I 



32 

traffic association told the members of the Commission that the backbone 
of the transportation improvements of the City of New Orleans is the public 
belt railroad which is owned and operated by the city. The waterfront 
of that city is being developed by a state commission. This development 
is being accomplished on a broad scale and little is being left undone to 
make New Orleans one of the great ports of the world; yet the traffic 
experts of that city publicly declared to members of the Terminal Com- 
mission that these extensive waterfront improvements would be of com- 
paratively small value to the city were it not for the fact that the great 
docks and wharves that have been and are being constructed there are and 
will be served by a public belt railroad, which will permit all railroads 
serving New Orleans to obtain access to the New Orleans waterfront on 
an equal basis and at a minimum expense. The public belt road of New 
Orleans is under the direction of an unpaid commission of 17 persons, 11 
of whom are appointed from the membership of the commercial organiza- 
tions of the city, and 5 appointed by the mayor from the city at large. 
The mayor is ex-officio president of the corporation. This road has about 
40 miles of track and is to be extended. It has 10 miles of double track 
along the principal section of the waterfront, where it has exclusive track 
connection with all of the public wharves. In 1914 it had a net operating 
surplus of $63,064.15. The first $500,000 used for the construction of 
this road was appropriated from the city treasury. A bond issue of 
$2,000,000 was authorized for the construction of the road and about 
$1,000,000 of this has b^^n thus far expended. The earnings of the belt 
line are supposed to pay the interest charges and to pay off the bonds as 
they come due. 

In New Orleans the city officials stated to the Commission that the 
public belt road which operates its own engines charges but $2 a car for 
interchanging. The officials stated that prior to the establishment of the 
public belt railroad, the railroads of the city '' were at each other's throats," 
as it were, and charged as high as $20 a car for interchange service. 

In addition to affording the railroads prompt and impartial service, the 
public belt of New Orleans has, according to the officials of that city, at- 
tracted industries to the city. City officials say that they are confident that 
it is destined to become a tremendous factor in the industrial development of 
their municipality. 



" The New Orleans Public Belt Railroad is a terminal switching rail- 
road owned exclusively by the City of New Orleans, and operated and con- 
trolled by the said municipality. * * * 

" The purpose of the Public Belt Railroad is to supply comprehensive, 
economical and non-discriminatory switching service to all who require and 
can use same. It transfers cars from railroads to railroads, from railroads 
to wharves, from wharves to railroads, from railroads to industries and 



Oversized 
Foldout 



33 

public delivery tracks, from industries to all transportation outlets of the 
city, and makes available to railroads that desire an entrance into the city, 
all of the said railroad, wharf and individual switch connections at a low 
charge." (Extracts from " Facts Regarding the New Orleans Public Belt 
Railroad," October 15, 1919.) 

San Francisco 

At San Francisco there is a public belt road in operation. This road, 
the officials have stated in a letter to the Terminal Commission, is on a 
paying basis. It is owned and operated by the State under the jurisdiction 
of the Board of Harbor Commissioners of San Francisco. It was con- 
structed in 1890-92 and its main line is 6.7 miles long, while its spur, indus- 
try, and team tracks extend over 19.1 miles. The officials of the Board 
of Harbor Commissioners stated that the shippers of San Francisco can 
now send a car from one end of the waterfront to the other for $5, whereas 
previously this operation was performed by the railroad companies via 
barge and cost $10 and $15 per car. 

There are in all 115 different industries located on the tracks of the 
San Francisco belt, while other industries not having spur track connec- 
tions use the belt tracks and pay a cash rental per car per day, according 
to the officials of the Board of Harbor Commissioners. The latter in com- 
munications sent to the Terminal Commission said that undoubtedly many 
industries located in San Francisco because they were assured of the belt 
railroad service. The road handled, in 1914, 230 cars a day. In 1913 the 
belt railroad was extended at the request of the military authorities, through 
the Fort Mason Military Reservation to serve the United States army trans- 
port docks at the north of that reservation. An extension from the trans- 
port docks to the Presidio, one of the largest military reservations in the 
United States, is contemplated. The charges of the belt road run from 
$2.50 to $5 a car. 



" By these constructions and extensions, a continuous belt railroad 
switching system, adequately equipped, is now in full and successful opera- 
tion around the whole active harbor front of San Francisco, from the 
United States transport docks on the north and west to Channel Street on 
the south. It is a tremendous gain to the harbor, and its real advantages 
only become properly estimated when it is recollected that even such a 
great seaport as New York has no harbor belt line." (Extract from " Bien- 
nial Report of the Board of State Harbor Commissioners," 1916.) 

Montreal 

At Montreal the only Canadian city visited by the Commission, the 
same keen understanding of the proper methods to promote the advance- 



34 

ment of a city that is evidenced in the more progressive cities of this country, 
was apparent. The waterfront of this city is under the jurisdiction of a 
Federal board. The officials of this Federal Commission, after having 
visited the principal ports of the world, are enthusiastic advocates of the 
belt railroad. The Montreal public belt road which extends along the 
harbor front was constructed by the Board of Harbor Commissioners a 
number of years ago. At first the railroads were allowed to operate it 
jointly. As a result of the quarreling between the railroads, it was finally 
decided by the Commission to take over the work of operating this belt road 
themselves. This venture, the Commissioners stated, has proven a success 
and the belt railroad has tremendously aided the phenomenal growth of 
this great port. It is on a paying basis financially. 

This road charges $2.50 a car for interchanging between the ships and 
the railroads and $5 a car for interchanging cars between the railroads. 
Officials say that they can do this work much cheaper than the railroads 
can do it themselves, and that for the same service which they render the 
railroads for $5 a car, the railroads have charged each other as high as 
$15 a car. 

According to statements of the Montreal harbor officials, not a single 
complaint regarding the movement of freight has reached the Commissioners 
since the establishment in 1907 of their traffic department, which operates 
the terminals. Respecting this, a Montreal official said, " And what this 
means can be readily appreciated by your Commission, as the efficiency and 
despatch of a port depends more upon this fact than; upon any other. Ineffi- 
ciency spells congestion in a very short time." 

The Harbor Commissioners and railroad officials met by the members 
of the Terminal Commission were inclined to smile at the terminal facilities 
of Boston, with which they are familiar. They suggested that Boston could 
learn much from San Francisco, New Orleans and other American cities, 
particularly the two former. * * * 

In their report for 1915, which has just been issued, the Montreal 
Harbor Commissioners, than whom there are no more progressive respecting 
port development, have this to say : " The operation of the railway terminals 
has proved to be one of the most important and successful features of the 
development of the Harbor of Montreal." 

Respecting the Public Belt Railroad, this same report says : " The 
rates charged by the Harbour Commissioners for this service are so moder- 
ate and the existing facilities and manner of operation give such good 
despatch that there is an immediate urgent demand by the new industries 
rapidly springing up along the waterfront for the prolongation of the harbor 
terminals to new sites and to industrial wharves specially being constructed. 

" Probably no feature of harbour development will give such good 
results to the industrial growth of the city and at the same time to the 
success of the harbour." 



35 

" * * * The development of the harbour during the last twelve 
years has in view the best possible connection between the Harbour Ter- 
minal Railway and the ocean steamship berths. In addition to this, the con- 
struction of the High Level Marginal Railway gives close and prompt 
transfer of cars between one railway and another and connects with the 
many growing industries along the rapidly developing waterfront. * * * 
The success of the Montreal Hairbour Railway Terminals may best be 
exemplified by the table showing the mileage and cars handled, for the last 
ten years. From this table it will be seen that the mileage has about doubled ; 
car handling increased about four times and financial returns nearly five 
times. 
\ 

Mileage of Number 

Harbor Rail- of Cars 

way Tracks, Handled by 

Miles. Commissars. 

1909 ~ 

1910 ' 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

" * * * The Montreal Harbour Railway Terminals consist of sur- 
face lines situated between Victoria Bridge and the end of the piers on the 
south side of the canal ; and the Marginal lines from McGill Street down 
to the Imperial Oil Wharf at Montreal East; having a total trackage of 
55.35 miles, h^ * * " 

" Much of the success in Montreal Harbour is due to despatch in load- 
ing vessels and unloading cars, and effort is made by direction of the 
Harbour Commissioners for a prompt and efficient service. So successful 
has this service been that there was not a single complaint, although many 
might have been expected during the 200 consecutive working days in the 
Montreal Harbour navigation season." 

" The extension of the Harbour Commissioners' Marginal Railway 
eastward along the river front of the Harbour of Montreal has already 
resulted in wonderful industrial activity from Hochelaga to Pointe-aux- 
Trembles. A few years ago the Montreal Cotton Mill was the limit of the 
industrial development along the waterfront in the eastern part of the City 
of Montreal. With the development of the harbour and the extension of 
the High Level Railways and the active operation of the railway terminals, 
this valuable manufacturing district has entered upon a new era of pros- 
perity. * * *" (Extracts from the " Harbour of Montreal Annual Report, 
1918.") 



28.26 


75,636 


28.86 


79,466 


28.97 


93,859 


34.91 


112,911 


37.30 


114,531 


39.88 


114,449 


44.92 


.157,430 


49.11 


234,439 


52.35 


215,394 


55.35 


247,009 



36 

John F. Sullivax 
233 Broadway, New York 

October 14, 1921. 

Mr. Arthur S. Tuttle, 

Chief Engineer, 

Board of Estimate and Apportionment, 

Municipal Building, 

New York City. 

Dear Sir: — 

Pursuant to your request I transmit herewith a report embodying a 
suggestion for a Manhattan-Bronx Tunnel as a part of the comprehensive 
Belt Line System which has been under consideration. 

Very truly yours, 

JOHN F. SULLIVAN, 

Consulting Engineer. 

GENERAL STATEMENT 

The studies that have been made for the proposed Brooklyn-Richmond 
Tunnel under the provisions of Chapter 700 of the Laws of 1921 have 
revealed a situation that makes it important that in considering any com- 
prehensive plan for the development of the City and Port of New York 
that through rail facilities be provided for all of the five Boroughs of the 
Greater City. 

It has been impracticable within the time allotted and the limited 
information available to make other than a tentative suggestion of a route 
via which the New York Connecting and New^ Haven Railroads in The 
Bronx may be connected with the New York Central Railroad in Man- 
hattan via a tunnel that will be so located as to offer the maximum of 
advantages with a minimum of objections. 

About 13,350,000 tons of freight of New Jersey Railroads was handled 
for Manhattan and The Bronx exclusive of about 4,850,000 tons to railroad 
stations south of Sixtieth Street' in 1914, but the details of the tonnage, 
commodities and character of freight business that would be handled by 
such a connecting line as herein suggested are not as yet available, and 
though the report of the New York-New Jersey Port and Harbor Develop- 
ment Commission contains some general figures, there were no details 
available upon which a definite analysis could be made for this section 
of the City. 

The suggestion that a belt' line railroad be constructed in New Jersey 
to connect with a line to be constructed across Staten Island thence via 
tunnel to Bay Ridge, Brooklyn, there to connect with the present Long 



37 

Island and connecting railroads, emphasizes the importance of having 
the New York Central connected to such a terminal system as it is con- 
templated that important developments, such as all rail facilities to the 
Brooklyn Waterfront and industrial districts, Jamaica Bay, Stapleton Piers, 
Flushing Bay, Hunts Point, the Municipal Terminal Market in The Bronx 
and similar facilities and industrial district will require the service flex- 
ibility and dispatch of a terminal system jointly operated by all of the 
railroads of the City and Port, especially if commercial supremacy is to 
be maintained and the needs of economically handling domestic as^ well as 
competitive foreign shipments is to be accomplished. 

All rail delivery of freight through the medium of a terminal system' will 
permit of car delivery to given points, from which trucking may be done 
within given zones, with the result that street congestion and non-productive 
time of the trucks could be materially reduced. 

A tunnel such as is herein proposed in connection with existing rail 
facilities and the general development that contemplates the connecting up 
of all of the trunk lines of the City and Port of New York for standard 
railroad equipment has the advantages of not interfering with the operation 
of existing facilities during the periods of construction or of any contem- 
plated expansion of passenger facilities, places no restrictions as to the 
commodities to be handled or class of service and practically eliminates delays 
in traffic due to weather conditions and other items incidental to the opera- 
tion of floating equipment for the interchange of freight ; furthermore, there 
will be a material reduction in harbor congestion and a reduction of the 
necessity of waterfront occupancy by railroads for local terminal facilities. 

Proposed Location of Tunnel. 

The general location of the proposed tunnel is illustrated on Exhibit 
No. 4 (by a heavy dotted line) and is presented as the most desirable of 
several routes studied. 

In general there' would be a double track tunnel about 3.7 miles in length 
from connections with the New York Central Line on the Hudson River 
south of Fort Washington Park; thence easterly under West 168th Street, 
in Manhattan, under the Harlem River; thence easterly along the line of 
East 168th Street, East 169th Street, Southern Boulevard and under the 
present passenger tracks of the New Haven Railroad to about Longwood 
Avenue, in The Bronx, when the tracks would be so connected as to permit 
of head-on connection to the connecting railroad over the Hell Gate Bridge, 
or to the New- Haven Yards at Oak Point. 

The entire tunnel length may be constructed on satisfactory operating 
grades and at an elevation that will prevent grade crossings of traffic and a 
minimum of interference with existing structures and utilities. 

A connection on the east side of the Harlem River will provide direct 



38 

rail service to the proposed Municipal Terminal Market and permit of the 
development of a marginal belt line railroad in The Bronx, upon which 
jointly operated stations could be located at points that would be convenient 
to existing city bridges, thereby giving both Manhattan and The Bronx the 
advantage of such facilities. 

Exhibits Nos. 1, 2 and 3 illustrate the suggested connections of the 
proposed tunnel to the New York Central, the Harlem River Belt Line and 
the New Haven Railroads. 

Manhattan-Bronx Tunnel. 

Estimated Cost. 

Right of Way ... ^.... $2,000,000 00 

Double Track Tunnel and Approaches 16,760,000 00 

Track Electrification, Signals, etc I'OOO^OOO 00 

^ . . T^t^ :••••.• - $19,760,000 00 

Engineering- Administration- 
Legal and Contingencies 2,964,000 00 

Total Estimate Cost of Tunnel $22,724,000 00 

Summary oi Advantages of Proposed Tunnels. 

1. The five Boroughs of the Greater City would be linked with the 
trunk lines of the Port— thereby presenting the opportunity for all of the 
industries and marine facilities of this territory to be in direct rail com- 
munication with the commerce of the Nation. 

2. Improvements in time of delivery, car movements, flexibility and 
ultimate cost of handling shipments. 

3. Opportunity to better the methods of distributing food, milk, express 
and possibly baggage and mail. 

4. Of great value in an emergency for use, either of passenger or 
freight service, in the event of the necessity of temporary diversion of 
traffic from existing channels. 

JOHN F. SULLIVAN, 

Consulting Engineer, 
Concurred in by 

W. J. WILGUS, 

Consulting Engineer, 



39 

PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE LOCATION AND COST OF 

THE BROOKLYN-RICHMOND FREIGHT AND 

PASSENGER TUNNEL 

CITY OF NEW YORK 

Board of Estimate and Apportionment 

Office of the Chief Engineer 
Arthur S. Tuttle, 

Chief Engineer. 
Jesse B. Snow^ 

Tunnel Engineer. 

October 14, 1921. 

Mr. Arthur S. Tuttle, 

Chief Engineer, Board of Estimate and Apportionment, 
Municipal Building, New York City. 
Dear Sir: 

The following is submitted as a preliminary report on the location and 
cost of a tunnel for freight and passenger traffic between the Boroughs of 
Brooklyn and Richmond : 

Chapter 700 of the Laws of 1921, Section 1, authorizes and requires 
that: 

" The Board of Estimate and Apportionment of the City of 
New York shall within two years after the taking effect of this Act 
begin the construction of a Railroad Tunnel under New York Bay 
between the Boroughs of Richmond and Brooklyn. Such tunnel 
shall be used for both freight and passenger purposes. ^ ^ ^ 
The said Board may select the sites necessary for such tunnel and 
the terminals thereof * * *." 

It was at once recognized that to carry out the provisions of this Act 
and best serve the interests of the City of New York, the tunnel must be 
located so as to provide suitable connections with all of the trunk line rail- 
roads entering the Metropolitan District, and also to provide connections 
with the Staten Island railroads to meet the growing demand of Staten 
Island for passenger service. It must also provide a connection with the 
City's piers at Stapleton, and permit future connections with the City's pro- 
posed development of Jamaica Bay and with the suggested industrial rail- 
roads and other water terminals in the Boroughs of Manhattan, Brooklyn, 
Queens, The Bronx and Richmond. 

Up to the present time our investigations have been largely devoted to 
the studies of a tunnel for freight purposes only, as it was believed that 
this question should be given first consideration. If the railroads look upon 
the proposed tunnel favorably, it will be necessary to construct additional 
tubes for local passenger traffic, but the location selected is such that in 
case the railroads should not consider the project favorably, connections 



40 

can be made with the Staten Island railroads in Richmond and the Fourth 
Avenue subway in Brooklyn, and permit the use of the tunnel for pas- 
senger service until sucn time as the railroads feel that their business war- 
rants their consideration of the project. 

In the brief time allowed it has been impossible to make any detailed 
surveys, or to prepare extensive plans. Data obtained by the Transit Com- 
mission in its investigation for a tunnel under the Narrows, and by the 
Board of Water Supply in connection with the construction of the Narrows 
Siphon were made available by these bodies. Recourse was also had to 
the anchorage chart of New York Harbor, published by the United States 
Coast and Geodetic Survey, to the topographic maps of the Borough of 
Richmond, to right of way maps and profiles of the Staten Island and 
Long Island Railroads, and to the records of your office. 

In Brooklyn and Queens the location of the Long Island Railroad and 
the New York Connecting Railroad offered opportunities from which all 
the desired connections on the easterly side of the Narrows could be made. 

In Richmond it was found that the Staten Island Rapid Transit Rail- 
way, the only available one at present existing on the Island, would be 
inadequate to handle the expected volume of traffic without very complete 
reconstruction. Furthermore, this road has no yard suitable for handling 
the expected volume of traffic. Therefore it will be necessary to build a 
large classification yard. There are but few sites available for a yard of 
the size required to handle the estimated volume of traffic, and, at the same 
time, suitable , for connections with the New Jersey trunk line railroads. 
In investigating possible sites for the classification yard, it was endeavored 
to obtain sites removed as far as possible from existing or developing resi- 
dential districts and to obtain locations best suited for industrial or com- 
mercial development. With these limitations two principal sites are avail- 
able, as follows: 

L The district at the foot of the western slope of the Staten Island 
hills near the centre of the island. 

2. The low ground at the head of Richmond Creek near the Village 
of Richmond. 

The first site lies south of the residential area along the north shore 
and provides a suitable connection for any tunnel line passing directly west 
from the Narrows through the main range of hills, and also with any rail- 
road entering Staten Island from the west between the B. & O. R. R. bridge 
on the north and Perth Amboy on the south. 

The second site, at the head of Richmond Creek, provides suitable con- 
nections for any tunnel line having its portal east of the main range of 
hills, as well as with railroad lines entering the Island from the west. 

Maximum Grade: In view of the grave objections to steam locomo- 
tives in tunnels, and the satisfactory results obtained elsewhere by electric 



41 

traction, it is apparent that the latter should be adopted for the operation 
of this tunnel. With electric traction, the weight and power of the locomo- 
tive can be increased almost indefinitely. The selection of the maximum 
grade, therefore, appears to be influenced chiefly by the strength of existing 
draft gear in ordinary freight service. In our studies of the various routes, 
the cost of the tunnel was estimated for both 1 per cent, and 2 per cent. 
maximum grades, with the result that the latter grade indicated a saving of 
t)ver $15,000,000. Still steeper grades, operated with pushers, show very 
large savings in first cost, and from the purely economic standpoint appear 
justifiable, even with very heavy traffic. Practical considerations, however, 
have resulted in the selection of a maximum grade, of 2 per cent, for the 
purposes of this report. This will reduce pusher operation to a minimum, 
and, furthermore, we have the precedent of the successful electric operation 
of a number of existing trunk railroads, which handle long and heavy freight 
trains on grades of 2 per cent, and 2.2 per cent. 

Maximum Curvature. The maximum curvature for tunnel align- 
ment should be in harmony with existing practice on the Long Island and 
New York Connecting Railroads, and, with a view to keeping the Tunnel 
Section as small as possible, it is recommended that a maximum curvature 
of 3 degrees be adopted. 

Government Limitations. At a conference with the United States 
District Engineer in whose jurisdiction the Tunnel would be located, it 
developed that the War Department would permit no permanent structure 
above a plane 50 feet below mean low water between pierhead lines, and 
further, even below this plane, the War Department would probably be 
opposed to any encroachment above the existing river bottom, because of 
its possible effect upon tidal velocities. In our preliminary studies the top 
of the tunriel has been located so as to provide a permanent cover of material 
between it and the river bottom at its lowest point, and it is located at least 
10 feet below the dredging plane at all points. 

Clearances and Cross Sections. The minimum possible interior 
cross section of tunnel has been determined by a study of the largest types 
of rolling stock now in use on the railroads entering New York City. This 
has resulted in the adoption of the sections shown on Plate No. 1. 

ROUTES STUDIED 

The construction of a tunnel under the Narrows is limited to about two 
miles of shore front extending in Brooklyn from 67th street on the north 
to 95th street on the south, and in Staten Island from St, George on the 
north to the U. S. Government Reservation on the south. 

In order to determine the most economical line on which the Narrows 
could be crossed under the limitations imposed by the U. S. Government 
as to depth below water at which the permanent structure must be built, 



42 

and as to the depth below which a temporary blanket over the tunnel for 
construction purposes must be kept, a contour map of the bottom of the 
Narrows was plotted from data given on the anchorage chart of New York 
Harbor. Eight different crossings, which would terminate at the most 
advantageous points in Brooklyn and Richmond, were then selected, and 
profiles of these lines plotted. Variations in the land approaches to these 
crossings to give the most economical type of land structure led to the study 
of fifteen routes. Most of these routes were studied for 1 per cent, and 
2 per cent, grades in both Brooklyn and Richmond. 

It was found that in all cases the cost of the 1% grade lines was so 
much in excess of the cost of the 2% grade lines that in accordance with 
the studies outlined above the saving in operating costs on a 1% line did 
not warrant its adoption. The studies were narrowed down, therefore, to 
2% grades, except where existing conditions made it desirable to keep the 
tracks depressed for such a length that the additional cost of a flatter grade 
was deemed warranted. 

In the laying out of the routes the desirability of long tangents and 
the minimum amount of curvature was kept constantly in mind, as well as 
the locations for classification yards. 

After estimating the cost of all the lines, the question of alignment was 
considered in the light of the comparative costs of the different routes. 
This led to the elimination of twelve of the routes, and thenceforth studies 
were concentrated upon two northerly routes, one crossing the Narrows 
from Owls Head Park in Brooklyn to Arrietta Street, in Richmond and the 
other from Owls Head Park in Brooklyn to Hyatt Street in Richmond, 
and upon one southerly route crossing from the vicinity of 86th Street 
in Brooklyn to near Maryland Avenue in Richmond. For these routes, con- 
nections to the Stapleton Piers and to the suggested industrial railroad along 
the Brooklyn waterfront were provided. 

Of the two northerly crossings the one at Arrietta Street, in Richmond, 
was considered highly inadvisable, due to the location of the Catskill Water 
Supply pipe in this street, as it would necessitate the laying of another water 
main from Brooklyn before any work could be started on the construction 
of the tunnel near the Staten Island shore, and further, it would involve a 
large expense in the restoration of the facilities which the location of the 
tunnel on this line would destroy. Further, a route practically identical in 
every respect could be obtained by using the Hyatt Street crossing, but the 
relative cost of the two lines cannot be accurately determined without a 
complete set of borings. 

The northerly routes offer some advantages for operation beyond the 
tunnel terminal in Staten Island, but these are believed to be insufficient to 
overcome the estimated difference in cost of $9,000,000 between them and 
the southerly route, so that, for this reason, the southerly route is favored. 



43 
ROUTE RECOMMENDED 

The route that I recommend extends from the Long Island Railroad, 
near Sixth Avenue, Brooklyn, under private property and City streets to the 
bulkhead near the foot of 86th Street ; thence under the Narrows to Staten 
Island, near the foot of Maryland Avenue ; thence under private property 
to a crossing under the State Island Railway between Grasmere and 
Dongan Hills; thence on a private right of way and parallel with the 
Staten Island Railway to Grant City; thence curving to the westward and 
continuing on private right of way to the Classification Yard, located near 
Richmond, Staten Island. The total length of the above line is about eight 
and one-half miles. This line, together with a connection to the Stapleton 
Piers, is shown on Plate No. 1. A connection for a possible future industrial 
railroad along the Brooklyn waterfront is also indicated on this Plate. The 
profile of this line is shown on Plate No. 2. 

In the short time available for making these studies it has not been 
possible to investigate thoroughly various methods of building the tunnel 
under the Narrows. Because of this fact, all of the estimates have been 
prepared for twin cast-iron tubes 24 feet outside diameter, as shown on 
Plate 1, built by the shield method under compressed air. This method of 
construction has been thoroughly tried out in New York City and elsewhere 
during the past 100 years and has been selected as the best type for all the 
tunnels heretofore built or now contemplated under the East River and the 
North River, New York City. It was, .therefore, most logical to prepare 
the estimates upon a basis of construction concerning which the most accu- 
rate predictions as to costs, progress and ultimate success could be made. 

It IS believed that some form of trench construction might materially 
reduce the cost of the Narrows section of the work, but further careful 
studies of all local conditions affecting its application to this problem must 
be made before this method could be decided upon. The effect of the 
adoption of the trench method on the relative costs of the northerly and 
southerly routes would be to reduce the cost of each, but my studies lead 
me to the belief that the southerly route would still be the less costly. 

For the land tunnels, twin cast-iron tubes lined with concrete, built 
by the shield method, are proposed below water, and will be necessary 
whatever type of construction for the Narrows crossing is finally adopted. 
Rectangular sections of the ordinary steel bent and concrete type as shown 
on Plate No. 1 are proposed for tunnels above water in thickly populated 
districts. In Richmond, where part of trie tunnel through soft ground, above 
water, is in undeveloped districts, the concrete section shown on Plate No. 1 
is proposed. For the approaches to the tunnel, standard railroad construc- 
tion is proposed. 

ESTIMATES 

The estimate of cost of construction of the shield-driven tunnels, and 
of the soft ground tunnel, has been derived from a detailed analysis of 



44 

contractor's plant, labor and materials, general office expenses, bond pre^ 
miums, liability insurance, overhead superintendence, contingencies and 
profit. The rate of progress assumed for this work is based on the progress 
obtained in previous work of this character. All other estimates have 
been largely based on unit prices, which have been obtained from the cost 
of similar work carried out in New York City and elsewhere, modified to 
meet present-day prices. 

The preliminary estimate of cost of a two-track tunnel on the southerly 
route is as follows : 
Tunnel Construction: 

Including connection to the Stapleton piers and based on present-day 
prices for labor and materials, with an allowance for contractors' 
contingencies and profit $34,261,000 

Equipment: 

Including track, third rail, sub-stations, transmission, ventilation, pump- 
ing, lighting, signals, telegraph and telephone lines, etc 2,073,000 

Engineering : 

In which is included design, supervision and inspection, estimated at 

6% of cost of tunnel construction and equipment 2,180,000 

Administration and Legal Expenses: 

Estimated at 2% of the cost of tunnel construction and equipment.... 727,000 

Total ' $39,241,000 

Real Estate and Easements 1,500,000 

Total $40,741,000 

Contingencies: 

To provide for fluctuation in cost of labor and materials, claims, acci- 
dents, etc., estimated at 10% of the above total 4,074,000 

Total $44,815,000 

Brooklyn Freight Connection, including Real Estate, Engineering, Admin- 
istration and Contingencies 6,000,000 

Total $50,815,000 

The time required for construction is estimated to be from five to six 
years. 

RECOMMENDATIONS 
It is recommended that authorization be given to prepare a contract and 
specifications for borings and for the preparation of the contract, specifica- 
tions and plans for Twin Shield-Driven Cast Iron Tubes, and for alternative 
plans for a trench tunnel. 

In conclusion, I desire to/ record my indebtedness to the members of the 
engineering staff for the valuable services rendered, and particularly to 
Principal Assistant Engineer Charles D. Drew, Resident Engineer William 
McK. Griffin and Designing Engineer Albert E. Hill. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. B. SNOW, 

Tunnel Engineer, 



M. B. Brown Printing 3t Binding Co.. 
New York. 



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